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Recreational Drugs - The Risks and assessment of those

A risk is the potential of suffering some form of harm or loss.  In life all activities have some level of risk even if this is just very small.  Recreational drug taking is no different.  Below we give you some ideas on how you are best take responsibility for your actions by assessing those risks, including an interesting table comparing the risks of taking drugs to other activities:

What is risk assessment?

Risk assessment is the mental process of measuring the risks involved in engaging in a given activity. People perform risk assessments most often when they are trying to decide whether or not to engage in an activity they perceive to be "risky." Using a drug, for example (any drug), has risks. Questions someone might ask themselves or their doctor before taking a particular drug, in order to assess the risks, include:

- What are the negative side effects?
- Does this drug interact dangerously with other drugs?
- Is it addictive?
- Will I experience withdrawal symptoms when I stop?

There are many other questions someone might ask. These are just a few examples.

Risk assessment is always a risk/benefit assessment.

To measure anything, a scale or counterweight is needed. The counterweight to a risk is a benefit. A person undertaking a risk assessment weighs the perceived risks against the perceived benefits (real or imagined), and the "heavier" side wins. Risk assessment, therefore, is always a risk/benefit assessment.

People perform risk/benefit assessments every day, even unconsciously. For example, every time someone gets into a car or an airplane they are making an unconscious decision that the benefits of rapid transportation outweigh the risk of injury or death.

Can recreational drug use have benefits?

A benefit is something that promotes or enhances well-being. Recreation itself is a benefit, and different people choose different types of recreational activities, depending on their tastes and preferences. The vast majority of people who use illicit drugs (and alcohol) are casual, non-addicted users who use moderately and report various kinds of benefits from their use, whether therapeutic, medicinal, recreational, or otherwise. Different people use different drugs and report different benefits. Although we do not provide much information about the potential benefits of various illicit drugs, it is important to understand these as well as the potential risks in order to make an informed risk/benefit assessment.

What determines the weight of a risk.

The weight of a risk can be described as the severity of the possible harm that might occur from a given activity multiplied by the probability of the harm occurring. This can be expressed by the following equation:

(weight of risk) = (severity of harm) x (probability of occurrence)

Generally speaking, higher risk activities have higher probabilities of more severe harm, while lower risk activities have lower probabilities of less severe harm. For example, russian roulette would be considered a very high risk activity (perhaps a 1 in 5 chance of death) while reading a book would be considered a very low risk activity (perhaps a 1 in a million chance of a paper cut). Of course, a harm that one person considers extremely severe another person might not care about very much at all. Like benefits, "harms" are also largely subjective, and their severity can be assessed differently by different people.

The risk of death.

Death is generally considered the most severe potential harm that can result from using drugs. Below is a chart comparing the statistical probability of death occurring from using various drugs, engaging in various recreational activities, and being exposed to various types of accidents and illnesses.

Risk of Death from Various Recreational Drugs
Compared to Other Activities/Exposures
Level of Risk Type of Activity/Exposure
Approx
numerical
CategoricalDrug UseLeisure ActivityDisease / Illness Accident / Injury Other
Exposures
1 in 1
Maximum
-
-
-
-
-
1 in 10
Extremely High
-
Russian Roulette*
-
-
Brain Surgery
1 in 100
Very
High
Tobacco
Methadone
Injecting
BASE Jumping
Serious Climbing
Grand Prix Racing
Heart Disease
Cancer
Respiratory Disease
Space Travel
Deep Sea
Fishing
1 in 1,000
Quite
High
Heroin
Morphine
Barbiturates
Alcohol
Hang Gliding
Parachuting
Motorbike Racing
Climbing
Hypothermia, etc.
Mental Disorders
Strokes
Prostate Cancer
Violence (all)
Sudden Infant Death
Hospitals (babies)
Shaking (babies)
Pollution
White Asbestos
Offshore Oil Work
Mining
1 in 10,000
Medium
Solvents
Benzodiazepines
Dextropropoxy
Dihydrocodeine
Motor Sports**
Water Sports***
Mountain Hiking
Canoeing
Diabetes
Leukaemia
Influenza
Skin Cancer
Suicide; Falls
Road Travel/Use
Helicopter travel
GA**** by dentist
Construction Work
Farming/Agriculture
Police Custody
Giving Birth (overall)
1 in
100,000
Quite
Low
Ecstasy/MDMA
Amphetamine
Cocaine; GHB
Prescription Drugs
Analgesics
Contraceptive Pill
Dance Parties
Fighting Sports
Snow Sports
Soccer & Rugby
DIY (home)
Sports Spectator
Meningitis
HIV/AIDS
Asthma
Sudden Death Syndrome
Food Poisoning
Cervical Cancer
Airplane Travel
Rail Travel, etc.
Stairs (falling)
Eating (Choking)
Electrocution
Drowning; Fires
Child Abuse
Refusal of Int. Care
Manufacturing (cars)
Passive Smoking
X-rays; Machinery
Homicide; Guns
1 in
1 million
Very Low
LSD (acid)
Mushrooms
Antibiotics
Viagra
Fairground Rides
Jogging
Swimming
Riding Sports
Legionnaire's
Food Allergies
Falling out of bed
Clothing Fires
Boilers/Heaters
Police Cars; Toys
Clerical/Office work
Vaccination
1 in 10 million
Extremely Low
Herbal Cannabis
Cannabis Resin
Amyl Nitrates
Indoor Sports
Playgrounds
Gymnasiums
CJD (BSE)
Toxic Shock Synd.
Insects; Dogs
Alarm Clocks
Lightening
Nuclear Radiation
Sexual Intercourse
1 in 100 million
Minimal
Caffeine; Khat
Nitrous Oxide
Ketamine, DMT
Table Games
Computer Games
Masturbation
Bubonic Plague
Smallpox
Leprosy
Snakes; Birds
Cats; Sharks
Earthquakes
State Executions
Spontaneous Combustion
UFOs / Aliens

Copyright Russell Newcombe, 1999


Explanation of the above chart.

The above chart is based on the number of people who engaged in the particular activity or were exposed to the cause during a single year (1998) in the United Kingdom. Denominators are based on the most recent prevalence figures (or estimates) for each type of drug use or leisure activity. Activities which involve the entire British population are based on a denominator of 55 million. The above chart does not take into account the frequency of occasions/exposures nor the magnitude or duration of the cause (i.e., dose of the drug, total flying hours, etc).

Disease/illness ratios are based on the number of people whose behaviour exposes them to the disease (i.e., beef-eaters for CJD, sexually active persons for AIDS). Accident/Injury ratios are based on the number of people whose behaviours or qualities expose them to risk of that type of accident or injury (i.e., astronauts for space travel). Other exposure ratios are based on the number of people exposed to this kind of risk.

* Included as a theoretical and quasi-humorous example. The prevalence of Russian roulette playing is not known.
** There is an estimated 200,000 mountain climbers in the UK, and 116 deaths in a decade.
*** Water sports involving equipment like boating, surfing, water skiing, scuba-diving and canoeing (1 in 13,200)
**** "General Anaesthesia." There were 3 deaths among 35,000 people who received GA for dental work in Britain.

How useful is the chart.

The above chart portrays statistical probabilities only. Statistical probabilities do not reflect the actual chances of the potential harm occurring to every individual who undertakes the activity. This is because some individuals take more precautions than others when engaging in risky activities. Also, some people may be more prone to accident or injury than others, some people may be less healthy to begin with, etc. Nevertheless, statistical analyses like the above chart can assist consumers in performing risk assessments as well as provide useful information to policy-makers in determining medical, drug, and recreational policies.


 
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**Disclaimer / Useful information**

Whilst we endeavour to check the information contained in these pages we do not guarantee the accuracy of any of the information contained here in, nor do we condone the taking of illegal drugs.  Please do make further research where necessary on other internet sites.  We have a page of useful links.  View now
 

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